Parts of a roof numbered diagram 1024x521

Anatomy of a roof

What are the common parts of a roof? Roof Ridge: The roof ridge, or ridge of a roof is the horizontal line running the length of the roof where the two roof planes meet. This intersection creates the highest point on a roof, sometimes referred to as the peak. Hip and ridge shingles are specifically designed for this part of a roof.
Ridge vent: A ridge vent is an exhaust vent that runs horizontally along the peak of the roof allowing warm, humid air to escape from the attic. Use our ventilation calculator to calculate your attic ventilation requirements and determine how much exhaust ventilation you would need to properly ventilate your roof and attic.
Flashing: Flashing is a metal material installed at joint openings, around chimneys, and any dormer windows or skylights to help prevent water intrusion. You may recognize flashing as metal stair steps alongside a chimney or side walls on a roof.
Hip: The hip on a roof is the intersection of two roof planes that meet to form a sloping ridge running from the peak to the eave. Hip and ridge shingles are specifically designed for this part of a roof. Roof Deck: The roof deck is the structural foundation base for the roof system and is usually made of wood or plywood. Roofing Underlayment: Roofing underlayment is a layer of material, usually synthetic or felt, that adds extra protection on top of the roof deck and under the shingles. Synthetic underlayment helps repel moisture and provides protection against water infiltration. Synthetic underlayment is becoming a popular material choice over felt due to proven water-resistance performance and long-lasting durability. Roof Valley: The roof valley is the V-shaped intersection between two sloping roofs joining at an angle to provide water runoff.
Laminated Architectural Shingles: Laminated architectural asphalt shingles contain more than one layer of tabs to add dimension, performance and durability to a roof. Architectural shingles are sometimes referred to as three-dimensional shingles or laminated shingles. The opposite of architectural shingles are three-tab shingles, which are produced as a single layer of tabs and appear flat or without the dimension of a laminated shingle.
Roof Gable: A roof gable is the triangular section of the outer wall at the peak of the roof between a sloping roof and eave. A roof gable is sometimes referred to as a rake.
Metal drip edge: Metal drip edge is a narrow strip of noncorrosive metal used at the rake and eave to help manage dripping water by facilitating water runoff to protect the underlying section of a wall. Dormer: A dormer is a raised section of the roof. Dormers commonly contain a window that projects vertically through the slope in the roof.
Ice and water barrier: An ice and water barrier is a self-adhered waterproofing material installed along eaves, valleys, side walls, and other sensitive areas to protect against ice damage and wind-driven rain. Eave: An eave is the lower border of the roof that overhangs the wall usually located in the first three feet of a roof. Undereave vent: Undereave vents are intake vents located under the eaves of the roof that help draw cool dry air into the attic. Again, you can use our ventilation calculator to calculate your attic ventilation requirements and determine how much intake ventilation you would need to properly ventilate your roof and attic.
Now that you’re familiar with the basic anatomy of a roof, you’ll start to notice dormers and gables everywhere you turn. More important, you’ll be equipped to have an informed conversation with your roofing contractor when the time comes for you to get a new roof.
To learn more about roof layers and components that make up a complete roofing system, visit our Total Protection Roofing System® site section or ask your contractor for more information. Need a roofing contractor? Find a roofing contractor near you in the Owens Corning Roofing Contractor Network.

10 Most Common Roof Problems

10 Most Common Roof Problems

Watching for the 10 most common roof problems can save you significant money. Catching damage early and repairing it can save you the cost of a complete roof replacement.

Here are the 10 most common problems to be on the lookout for...

Poor or Faulty Installation
A faulty installation of your roofing material can dramatically increase the likelihood of problems and reduces a roof system’s life expectancy. You need to hire a professional to tell you if your roof has been installed correctly.

Leaks and Moisture
Wind, rain, hail, snow, ice, and debris ... all of these and more can lead to moisture getting under the layers of roof and causing everything from leaks to mold and rot.

Improperly Installed Flashing
Flashing is what seals the areas where your roof has been penetrated (like vent pipes, sky lights, chimneys and heating and cooling systems. When flashing is poorly attached, it can cause open seams and laps and ultimately cause tiles to blow-off. Improperly installed flashing can also reduced puncture resistance in your roof.

Small animals, birds and insect can cause a surprising amount of damage. It's best to evict them before they get a foothold.

Ponding Water
Water that ponds or stands on your roof is a sure sign of a problem. Common cause range from debris buildup to improper drainage of HVAC units and gutters.

Punctures and Penetrations
Wind and hail damage can cause punctures in roofing material. The sealant and flashing around penetrations (such as vents for household appliances and HVAC) added after the roofing was completed need to be looked at regularly.

Overhanging tree limbs can rub on a roof, abrading the surface of the shingles and wearing away the protective top layer. Branches can also fall on the roof creating even more serious damage. Tree limbs should be trimmed back away from the roof as much as possible and if a tree is close enough to pose a threat to your home, it should be removed.

Something as simple as walking on your roof can cause damage. Many roofers install walkways with a double layer of roofing materials to allow access to HVAC or other areas in order to prevent damage.

Roof and attic ventilation is an integral part of making a roof last, and occurs naturally when vents are placed at the base of the roof (at the eaves or in the soffits) and near the top of the roof (the ridge) so that warm air can leave through the top, and cool air can be drawn through the bottom. Since warm air naturally rises, no mechanical process is necessary to create this air movement. Adequate ventilation regulates temperature and moisture levels in the attic. Left unchecked, heat and moisture can build up causing damage to rafters, sheathing, shingles, insulation, and raising energy costs, any may also lead to some ugly mold and mildew problems.

Shrinkage and Blistering
Shrinkage is caused when the roof membrane (the stuff under the tiles or shingles) shrinks, most often causing cracks or crazing in the upper layer. Blistering, ridging, splitting, and surface erosion of shingles can eventually lead to bigger problems.

Improper or Lack of Maintenance
Lack of roof maintenance is probably a roof’s worst enemy. Many problems start out as minor, such as the need to remove overhanging tree limbs or cleaning backed up gutters. But when not corrected these problems can create serious damage. Routine inspection and maintenance can extend the life of your roof and that can save you a lot of money.

If it has been a while since you last professional roof inspection, call the experts at T&L Roofing at (931) 433-7314



       As the relentless heat of summer fades and cooler temperatures of autumn roll in, it is the perfect time to do a little routine maintenance to your roof. After all, winter will be here before you know it! Let’s take a look at a few fall roof maintenance tips that will ensure your roof is in tip-top shape.

Inspect. Using a ladder and proper safety equipment, take a look at your roof’s current state and make note of any:
 1. Lifting or missing shingles
 2. Damaged drip edge
 3. Buckling, loose, or missing flashing
 4. Missing or exposed fasteners
 5. Sagging or broken gutters
 6. Piles of granules
Be sure to contact a licensed and bonded roofing contractor to take a closer look and perform a thorough inspection and/or repair professionally.

-Also inspect for moss and algae.  You can help prevent moss and algae growth by doing the following:
 1. Keep your attic properly ventilated.
 2. Remove debris.
 3. Trim overhanging branches

Trim. During the fall season trees not only begin to shed their leaves but also shed limbs, branches, and twigs. When the weather turns colder and high winds affect your area, any overhanging limbs and branches can become dislodged and land directly on your roof. By having them removed in a controlled environment future damage and accidents can be prevented.

Clean. As the trees begin to shed their leaves cleaning your gutters becomes essential. This includes the removal of any existing twigs, dirt, and other debris that may have built up since your last cleaning. Make sure all drainage areas are unblocked by leaves and debris. Do not try to remove excessive debris with a water hose as it may cause downspouts to clog and the affect the gutter system.

By following these necessary maintenance steps, and contacting a licensed and bonded roofing contractor for further inspection, your roof will be ready to weather another season.  For more information regarding roof maintenance tips contact us at T&L Roofing at 931-433-7314.


Getting a brand new roof can be an exciting experience. Kids and pets may watch in awe as they observe roofers ripping, tearing, hauling, and nailing – they may even want to sneak as close as possible to the action. That, of course is extremely dangerous. Once our crew arrives, your house is a work zone. Work zones, as you can imagine, pose unexpected hazards.
T&L Roofing prioritizes making roof replacement stress-free and seamless. However, there are major safety precautions and preparations you can make so you’re 100% ready.
Here are 10 tips to help make your roof replacement go as smoothly as possible. At the end of the day, we want you and your family to stay safe when the shingles start to fly.


1. Think about kids and pets.

Loud noises coming from the home may increase anxiety or disturb sleep habits. While it may be exciting to watch from a safe distance, work zones are extremely unsafe for children and pets.
Talk with your kids to explain that certain areas of the home or yard will be off-limits until the project is complete. Since young children and pets may not understand these dangers, you may be more comfortable visiting family or friends while your roof is replaced.

2. Relocate your vehicles.

Sorry, dad – giving us your prime parking space is a must.
We need quick access to our tools and trucks throughout the day. We need a place to load shingles and debris. You’ll want to keep your vehicles a safe distance from this area until work is completed.
You should also keep your garage doors closed during construction to keep out dust and debris.

3. Remove wall decorations.

The vibrations from hammers and machinery on your roof may travel through some walls of your home, especially if repairs to the existing deck are needed.

  • Walk through the rooms on the level below your roof.
  • Consider any knick-knacks, pictures or other items that are hanging from your ceiling or walls.
  • As a precaution, remove any decorations that aren’t permanently secured with screws.
You may also choose to remove decorative light fixtures like chandeliers to play it safe.

4. Cover belongings in the attic.

During a roof replacement, numerous installers will be walking on your roof, pounding it with hammers. Dust or small debris will fall in attic spaces during a new roof installation. Also, when having ridge vent replaced we HIGHLY recommend covering up everything because sawdust will fall when it is cut out.
You can keep personal items cleaner by covering them with old sheets or drop cloths until the roofing company is finished. Be prepared to do some light vacuuming in these areas after construction is complete.

5. Move grills and patio furniture away from the work zone.

A shed or garage is the best place to store outside items like grills, patio furniture, lawn ornaments, and potted plants while your new roof is installed.
If you don’t have on-site storage, you may want to put these items together in an area of the yard that is a safe distance from the work zone.
Keep in mind that most contractors will not help you move any personal items inside or outside the home.

6. Prune trees and cut grass before construction begins.

Any tree branches that hang low near your roof will need to be trimmed before we can begin work.
Your contractor should use drop cloths to protect plants and grass in the immediate perimeter of your home, but you need to cut grass a day before construction begins.
Short grass will help keep fallen debris from hiding in your lawn, making cleanup faster and more thorough.

7. Identify several accessible power outlets.

We will need access to electrical outlets while we are working. Exterior outlets are preferred, but if your home does not have any, a garage outlet is the second-best choice.
If you don’t have an outlet outside or in a garage, keep in mind that extension cords may need to run through a window or door to get power outside. Extension cords can pose a tripping hazard, so choose an outlet in an area that doesn’t get a lot of foot traffic.

8. Remove antennas or satellite dishes.

If you have any antennas or satellite dishes located on or very near your roof, you’ll want to have them removed. Call your cable or satellite provider to make arrangements before roof work begins.
If it is an old, non-working unit, most roofing contractors will be happy to remove and dispose of it for you.

9. Talk to your neighbors.

Let your neighbors know about the planned work. Give them an anticipated time frame for the duration. They will thank you! This will give them an opportunity to adjust their schedules and situations so that they can be most comfortable while the work is going on.
10. Be aware of your surroundings during construction.
Construction at your home can create unexpected obstacles. Extension cords or other construction equipment that isn’t normally there offer some fine opportunities to really hurt yourself. Stay extra alert during this time to prevent avoidable injuries.
Jeff Frantz, CertainTeed Territory Manager for the Washington D.C. Metro area, offers a smart tip:
“You should secure exits from the inside to make sure no one exits under a ladder or scaffolding. Also, a large note taped to the inside of the door is a great way to remind your family that an exit is unsafe to use.”

Finally, it is always best to communicate with your roofing company throughout the roof installation process. Ask if they have any other suggestions to make this work smoother for their crew and your family.

Most importantly, remember that this construction and any inconvenience it brings is temporary. Soon you will have the new roof that you’ve been waiting for.
Do you need a new roof?
When you need a new roof on your house, call the roofers you can trust to bring you peace of mind. Contact T&L Roofing @ (931) 433-7314 for a free estimate within 60 miles.

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Roof maintenance

When doing maintenance on your roof, please remember:
If you are uncomfortable being on your roof, or cleaning your gutters, please hire a professional to do the work for you!

Place your ladder on even ground if possible, secure your ladder to your gutters using a bungee cord. If you do not have a gutter, please have someone to hold the ladder for you. Extend the ladder above the roof line, and at an angel to your house.
If , at any time, you are uncomfortable, please come down.

This is the time do do routine maintenance on your roof, as well as your gutters
As the leaves are falling on your roof, they are in your gutters too.
 A little prevention now could save money down the road.

 Leaves and debris on your roof will not allow the water to flow off as it should. They trap water, causing it to back up, which could lead it it wick under your shingles.

Believe it or not, water can run uphill, or wick up hill, if it is trapped in valleys, behind chimneys, skylights, or other protrusions on your roof. It must have a way to run off.

Wicking may lead to a leak, which can cause damaged decking, mold in your attic, or damage to your interior.

While on the roof, this is a good time to check your pipe flanges, chimney flashing, around your roof vents, and the over all condition of your shingles.

Leaves and other debris in your gutters may clog your downspouts. This will not allow the water to run out of the gutters and cause them to overflow.  This could lead to damaged fascia or soffit.

While cleaning the gutters, make sure they are fastened against the fascia, with no cap between them. If they were put on with spikes and ferrels, you may want to strengthen them with clips. You will need to check for leaks, and ensure that the down spouts are clear. If the water is causing a problem, you may need to divert it using a black pipe to carry it away from your home.

Gutter guards may be needed to keep your gutters clean. We like to use GutterRx guards.

Should you have any questions, or would like for us to come out and give you an estimate, please give us a call, 931-433-7314, or send us an email
Thank you, Theressa

Removing tree from a customers roof.

Ice storm in February 2015. Mr. Rogers was out of town, a neighbor called and told him about the tree falling on his roof.
We had roofed this house a year before, so Mr. Rogers gave us a call. It was a very interesting day.

Before and After

Removing a tree from ice storm #2

Slipping and sliding.
Please be extremely careful .

Finishing removing the tree due to ice storm #3.

After removing the tree and debri, there was a small puncture and scrapped shingles. We covered the puncture while we were there, and came back after the thaw to replace the shingles.

Ice storm February 2015

Here are some pictures of us removing a tree from a customers roof.
Luckily there was only a small puncture, and scrapped shingles.

Finding leaks.

Good morning everyone.
I would like to discuss finding leaks.
Looking for a leak can be like looking for a needle in a haystack. Some are easy to find, some are not.
We can not guarantee to fix it the first time.
We first look for the obvious causes and repair those, again, we can not guarantee that it will be fixed the first time.
If it leaks again, we will have to look further to find the cause.
As with a mechanic on your car, if you have to take it back, you do not expect them to work on your car, parts and labor until it is fixed, for no additional charge.
You should not expect this from your roofer either.
Nor should you expect to get your money back for what they have already done.
We do our best to run a legitimate and caring business.
We have been in business for over 40 years, we have not been in business that long by not caring about what we do.
You can please some of the people most of the time, but you can not please all of the people all of the time.
Thank you, Theressa
Click here to see more examples of our work.

We Provide Quality Roofing Services

in Lincoln County,Tenn. and surrounding areas, all at an affordable price. Whether you have storm damage, repairs, a roof replacement, or new construction, we will be happy to help you with all of your roofing needs.

Our family owned and locally operated company was founded in 1970 by Robert Rogers. We are licensed and insured with over 45 years in the business, providing quality materials with  a 5 yr. workmanship guarantee. Our company is a Better Business Bureau (BBB) accredited business with an A + rating We’re a member of the Chamber of Commerce and a member of the NFIB.
Contact us. Call us for your FREE estimate today.
We proudly use Tamko, CertainTeed, and Owens Corning Products, but we will work with you to install the shingle of your choice to insure that you receive the roof of your dreams.